AGRICULTURE & HORTICULTURE ATAN A HRIATTUR PAWIMAWH

R. Thafala
Core Faculty (Agri),
SIRD, Mizoram.

 

Khawvel changkang zelin a ken tel pawimawh tak mai pakhat chu hriselna lam a hmasawnna hi a ni a, chu chuan ei leh in kawng tinreng ah mitin fimkhurna leh duhtui chhoh zelna a hring chhuak a. Hei hian thlai tharchhuah leh sawngbawl hi dinhmun pawimawh lehzualah a hlangkai a, chutih mek laiin thlai hrisello leh a sawngbawl dan thianghlim tawk lo te chu an chep in an hnawng tulh tulh thung si a ni. He hmasawnna chheh rem a ke kan pen ve theihna tur leh sumdawnna lem thleng pawh a kan in zar pharh ve theihna tur chuan kan thlai chin leh enkawl dan pawh hi “World class” ngei a kan kalpui ve hi a ngai tak meuh meuh a ni. Tun hnai mai ah pawh India ram atanga Europe ram a Theihai thawn luh ah a nget (mango stone weevil) lo awm vangin India ram atanga theihai lakluh chu Europe ram hrang hrangah te chuan khap a ni nghal bur mai a, hei hian khawvel market thleng phak a thlai thar chhuah kan neih ve duh chuan mumal tak a thlai chin dan (systematic) kan hman ve hi a pawimawh zia a tilang thei awm e.

    

Mihring kan awm chhung leh he khawvel kan luah chhung â alova kan awm theihloh ‘Ei leh in’ hi a ni a, chuvang chuan huan neih hi eizawnna tawp theilo leh hmakhaw eng tak a ni kumtluan thei dawn a ni. Amaherawhchu, kan huan enkawl dan te kan uluk lova, vawilehkhat a thar tam ringawt kan ngaihtuah a nih chuan kan ram chhia siamthat tum hian kan hmanhlelh hle ang tih a hlauhawm hle a ni.

NATNA LEH RANNUNG LAK A THLAI VENHIM:

     Mizo te hi hmasang atang a huan/ lo neih a eizawng thin kan ni a, kan culture leh rilru ah pawh huan/ lo neih hian pawimawhna tam tak a nei bawk a ni. Amaherawhchu, Lo neih a eizawng thin kan ni chung in kan thlai chin te an him tawk em ? natna leh rannung eichhe tu ten an bawm em? tih ngaihven ah erawh hi chuan nasa takin hmasawn kan ngai niin a lang.  Mihringte leh kan ran vulh te ang bawk hian kan thlai chin te hian natna an tuarin harsatna an tawk ve thin a. Heng te hi kan ngaihsak a uluk tak a kan enkawl thin hi a pawimawh hle a ni.

  1. Thlai natna:

Ram chang kang tawh (developed countries) kan han tih heng USA, Europe, Japan, Australia, etc. kan han tih te zingah hia mipui cheng zâ a 11.5 (11.5 %) te hi Agriculture a inghat an nih laiin ram changkang chho mek (developing countries) India, Africa, etc. a mihring cheng zâ a 57.5 (57.5%) zet te hi agriculture a in nghat an ni thung a ni (R.S Singh, 2005). He ti a nih avang hian Agriculture hi ram thang mek leh hmasawn mek te economy inghahna pawimawh tak zing a mi a ni kan ti thei awm e.

Khawvel pum a chhût in kum tin kan thlai chin zâ a 34 zet hi thlai natna, rannung leh hnim te a vangin a chhe thin ni a chhut a ni a (Cramer, 1967), heng thil thlen na chhan pawimawh tak pakhat chu kawng hrang hrang a huan enkawltu te kan in thlahdah vang a ni. Kan thlai chin te hi uluk tak a kan vil a, natna an nei em emaw rannung ten an ei em tih uluk tak a kan en a, eng ang chin (level) a nihin nge kan ngaihpawimawh ang tih te uluk takin kan zir chiang thin tur a ni.

Thlai hian natna a kai hian hmuh theih a lanchhuah dan hrang hrang an nei a, hei hi kha natna “Symptom” tiin an sawi thin a ni a, tin, a natna thlen tu tak hrik hi “Pathogen” tiin an sawi thin thung a ni. Symptoms te hi a lanchhuah na chhan chu pathogen te hmuhtheiha  an awm vang emaw pathogen ten thlai a harsatna an thlen a vang a thlai lan dan emaw nihphung lo danglam vang te a ni thin a ni.

Thlai in natna a kai â a chhiatpuina tur hian thil pathum (3) in kaihnawih tlat a awm a, chu chu “Diseases Triangle” tiin an sawi thin a, a hnuai ah hian entir a ni:

 

    

  PATHOGEN —————————————————-HOST

Thlai in natna a chhiatpui theihna tur chuan a chung a kan han tihlan tak thil pathum – Environment (boruak, sik leh sa, boruak hnawn dan leh adt.), Pathogen (natna thlen tû) leh Host (natna kai tû thlai) te an in kaihnawih tawnna (interaction) a pawimawh em em a. Heng thil pathum te hi a pakhat emaw pahnih emaw hi awm ringawt mahse thlai hian natna a kai ngawt theilo a, an pathum â an tan tlan ngei a ngai a ni. Entirna’n; lei ah hian natna hrik (Pathogen) chi hrang hrang hi engtik lai pawhin a awm reng a, amaherawhchu, boruak lum leh vawh dan leh hnawn dan in azir hle a nih loh chuan thlai a bei (infect) ngawt ngailova. Tin, boruak in lo zir pawh nise a thlai (host) duhzawng a nih loh emaw chu thlai chu a beih (infect) theih hun tak anih a ngai ve bawk a ni. Natnahrik (pathogen) thenkhat hian thlai thenkhat hi an tetlai chauhvin an eichhe (infect) theih a, thenkhat erawh chuan an thawkna kua (stomata) in hawn chauhvin thlai chhung an lut thei thin thung a ni.

Hetiang zel hian heng thil pathum kan sawi tak te khi an duh ang tak condition an hmuh chauhvin thlai tan a pawi leh natna thlen thei an ni thin a ni.

Thlai in natna a vei/ tawrh a lanchhuah dan hi chi hnih in a sawi theih a, chung te chu:

  1. Pathogen te hmuh mai theih an nih in: Pathogen ten thlai ah natna an thlen in an (pathogens) taksa bung or chawr te hmuh theihin a awm thei ve thin a, hetiang hmang te hian thlai in natna tawrh leh tawrh loh te a hriat theih thin a ni. Entirna atan: Mildew, Rust, Smut, White blister, Scab leh adt. an ni.
  2. Pathogen ten thlai (host plant) a natna an thlen avanga thlai nihphung a danglam in: Thlai in natna a neih avangin an nihphung emaw, an rawng emaw texture emaw, an pian dan thleng a thil danglam a lo awm hian thlai in natna a tuar a ni tih a hriat theih thin a ni. Entirna atan: Etiolation – thlai in a hrinna a hloh, Chlorosis – Virus emaw fungal vang emaw a thlai in a hrinna a hloh a, a lo eng (yellowing)thin hi, Hyperplasia – Thlai ti mûr (cells) a pun vak a vanga a nih phung pangai bak a thlai peng a len â a than vak na, Hypertrophy – Thlai ti mûr (cells) pung chuang lova a than len vak a vanga thlai peng te an nihphung pangai bak a an len â an than vak na, Necrosis – thlai ti mûr (cell) te leh a peng (tissue and organ) te natna avang a an thih a, thlai a a tial (streak), a rang (stripe), chhunhan (spot) ang emaw a tawih ang â a awmin.

Thlai natna enkawl leh sawngbawl (Plant disease management)

Thlai in natna a kai a, chu natna rawn intan theihna tur atan a thil pawimawh leh natna thlen thei tu hrang hrang te kan hre tawh a, chung natna chu engtin nge kan enkawl anga, engtin nge pumpelh theih ang tih hi thil pawimawh tak a ni. Thlai in natna a lo kai hian uluk tak a kan thlithlai a, chu natna chuan kan thlai thar chhuah turah nghawng a neih theih dan tur uluk tak a chhut chung a, chung natna rawn awm te chu enkawl dan tur mumal tak a ruahman hi “Disease management” an ti a, thlai natna kan sawngbawlna tur senso leh kan tharchhuah tur kan beisei in buktawk dan a zir zelin hma kan lak thin hi a pawimawh awm e. “Management” tih leh “Control” tih hi thil inzul tak, mahse danglam si a ni a, control kan tih chuan nuaichimih (complete eradication) a kawk deuh bik a, management kan han tih hi chuan a zavaia tihlum lova kan tan a thil pawi thlen thei chin tur beng hniam (economic injury level ai a natna/ rannung awmzat tih hniam) hi a tum a ni.

Khawvel hmasawn chho zel leh hriatna pung chho zelin a hrin chhuah angin ei leh in chung changah pawh kan duhtui in kan uluk chho zel a, hei hian kan thlai chin te kan enkawl dan hian kan hralh chhuah leh na (market) thlengin nghawng lian taka nei tawh a. Hei vang hian kan thlai na (infected crops) te kan enkawl dan chung changah hian kan fimkhur lehzual a pawimawh hle awm e. Integrated Disease Manangement (IDM) hi thlai natna enkawl na atan a tih dan lâr leh rintlak ber a ngaih a ni a, IDM in a tum chu natna rawn awm te tih dan (method) pakhat chauh hmang lova ti dan hrang hrang in chherchhuan fel tak hmang a natna enkawl hi a ni.

 

IDM hian tih dan phung (method) chi hrang hrang hlawm thum (3) lai mai pawt khawm in chung method te chu a hun dik tak a hman hi a tum chu a ni. IDM component pawimawh tak pathum te chu:

  1. Cultural practice: Cultural practice in a huam tlangpui te chu kan huan a kan thlai chin dan leh enkawl dan hrang hrang heng; thlai chin dan (cultivation technique), mulching, thlai phun zin dan leh a inrem dan mumal tak a kal pui, thlai in chin pawlh tur thlan fimkhur (hei hian thlai thenkhat, chaw tha siam kawng a intanpui tawn leh in ti chhe tawn thei, antagonistic effect, nei thei te thliar hran a kawk awm e), thlai chi thlan fimkhur leh a chinna hmun tur buatsaih dan te, huan/ lo enkawl fai a kan hlo thlawh paih senghawi leh thlai natna vei te kan suat a, kan thehthang dan (field sanitation) zawng zawngte a huam thei bawk awm e. Cultural practice hi chuan thlai natna lo awm thei tur lak a venhim leh a lo awm tan tir te hmanraw dang hmang lova enkawl hi a tum ber a ni a. Hemi ti tur chuan uluk tak a kan huan leh thlai chin te kan vil thin a pawimawh ang a, kan thlai chin te zingah danglam deuh an awm a nih chuan chik zawk a en a, a tul a nih phei chuan mithiam zawkte rawn vat thin tur a ni.
  2. Biological control: Biological control kan han tih hian thil nung dang ve tho hmang a natna enkawl hi a ni a, hei hi chu thil hautak deuh leh hmun bik deuh hlek a hman chi a ni. Biological control atan a kan thilnung hman te hi natna hrik tihlum thei emaw, an activity timuang thei emaw, thlai (host) te inventheihna (Host-plant resistance) chawktho thei emaw te an ni a. Entirna atan;

Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus penetrans, vampyrellid amoebae, Collembola spp, Penicillium spp. leh adt. Biological control hmang tur hi chuan thiamna a ngaih mai bakah kan hmanraw hman tur te kha a awm remchan lai leh kan hman duh na chhan kha hun dik tak a nih a ngai ve ni.

3.Chemical control: Chemical control kan tih hi chuan natna te damdawi siamchawp (chemicals) te hmang a natna tih hlum emaw, natna darh zel tur ven emaw hi a huam a ni. Chemical control atan a hman damdawi te hi a thawh dan leh a nihphung a zirin a chi hrang hrang a awm a, a hmanna tur leh a hman dan tur diktak a hman a nih chuan thil tangkai tak a nih laiin a hman dan tur diklo a hman a nih chuan thil thlauhawm taka ni thei tho bawk a ni. Fungicides, Antibiotics leh Fumigants te hi chemical hman thin lar deuh deuh te chu a ni a, heng ah hian then hrang tam tak a la awm bawk a ni.

Thlai in natna a lo kai dan leh a lanchhuah dan tlangpui te, a enkawlzui dan tlangpui te chu kan hre thawkhat tawh in a rinawm a, huan thlai hrisel tak leh hlawhtling tak kan neih theihna tur a kan hriat ngai thil pawimawh thenkhat han tarlang leh ila:

  • Thlai kumhlun leh sum chang thlai kan phun dawn reng reng in thlai tiak emaw a chi (seedling and seeds) hrisel ngei kan hmang tur a ni. Hei hian nakin thleng a kan hlawhtlin leh hlawhchham nasatakin a hril thei a ni.
  • Kan huan tur thlan chung changah kan thlai phun/ chin tur a zirin a ram mut (topography/ landscape) kan thlang uluk tur a ni. Tui tling (water logging) in a tihchhiat theih thlai kan phundawn chuan tui luan ral zung zung theihna tur chi ram awihtlan thlan tur a ni.
  • Thlai pakhat ai a tam kan ching/ phun dawn anih chuan eng thlai te nge chin kawp chia ang tih te, lei tha heh chi thlai a ni em (exhaustive crop) tih te, tui mamawh tam chi thlai a ni em tih te kan ngaihtuah tur a ni.
  • Kan thlai zingah natna vei niawm a kan hriat te chu a theih a nih chuan a rang thei ang berin kan paih tur a ni a, hei hian thlai dang a natna kai darh tur kha nasa takin a veng thei dawn a ni.
  • Thlai kung lian leh puitling tawhin natna a vei a nih chuan natna in a beih (infect) lai kha paih emaw thel emaw tur a ni a, chu chu a theih loh a nih chuan, a rang thei ang bera enkawl vat thin tur a ni.
  • Thlai thi leh natna vang a kan suat te chu thlai dang te atang a hla deuhah kan hal ral emaw kan phum bo tur a ni a, thlai dang a kai chhawn leh theih thin a vangin kan senghawi lai pawhin kan fimkhur hle tur a ni.
  • Natna damdawi hmang a kan enkawl dawn anih pawhin kan damdawi hman te a hman dan tur bituk ang zat thlap thlap a hman thin tur a ni. Heng damdawi te hi hman dan tur aia tam a hman a nih chuan kan thlai mai bakah lei chhung a hrik tangkai (beneficial micro-organism) te kha a tihlum palh ve theih a ni.

A chung a kan han sawi tak bakah khian thil pawimawh tam tak a la awm thei ang a, kan thlai ten natna an neih kan enkawlna lamah kan thlai te leh kan huan lei lung tan thil thalo zawk thlen theih a nih avangin thlai natna enkawl hi uluk tak leh fimkhur tak a kan tih thin hi a pawimawh tak zet a ni.

  1. RANNUNG LAK A THLAI VEN:

Mizo in zû-vâ kan tih, kan thlai chin te ei chhe thin rannungte hi Agriculture lamah chuan “Pest” ti a sawi thin an ni a, hei hian sazu leh sava mai nilovin rannung engpawh kan thlai chin eichhe thin tawh phawt hi chu a huam a ni. Rannung thenkhat hi chu an tam (insect population) leh tlem dan a zirin kan thlai chin te tan hian chhiatna  an thlen thei in hnawksaklo pawh an ni thei thin a, hei vang hian kan thlai chin bawm tu rannung te hi kan chik a pawimawh em em a ni.

Thlai natna kan enkawl ang bawk khan in thlai bawm thin rannung te hi a hun dik tak leh a tihdan dik tak a buaipui thin hi a tha a, chu chuan tullova kan insengso tur leh rannung tangkai lo awmve te kan tihhlum lohna turin min tanpui thei a ni. Kan huanah thlai te rannung in a ei chhiat lohna atan leh a lo awm anih pawh a kan hriattur pawimawh thenkhat te a hnuaiah hian tarlan a ni:

  1. Thlai kan ching dawn a nih reng reng in, a hmun hma uluk takin kan thlang tur a ni. Hei hian thlai eichhe thin rannung te in thlah punna kawngah nasatakin kawngro a su thei thin a ni.
  2. Kan thlai chi leh tiak phun tur reng reng rannung tui emaw, a no te in a lo ei mek tawh a nih leh nih loh uluk taka en thin tur a ni. Serthlum tiak te hi a hnah ei chhe tu leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella) te hian an ei chhe nasa em em a, han en â a hnah hring sahar ang tak mai â a in rin sung hi chuan heng rannung te hi an awm a ni tih hriat tur a ni. Hei hian thlai tiak no tê tê in a chaw siam na a tibuai in a than chhoh zelna ah a tibuai in a thih phah hial thei thin a ni.
  3. Thlai eichhe tu no/ tui thenkhat te hi chu tui pek (irrigation) vang te hian a control ve theih thin a, an no te leh tui (larva/ Egg) te kha kan tui pek khan a chiah hlum theih ve thin avangin buh leh thlai thenkhat te hi chu kan seng zawh hian tui pek emaw, a chinna hmunah tui eng emaw chen tlin tir thin te hi a tha a ni. Alu bul eichhe thin tu (Phthorimaea operculella) rannung te hi alu kung tui a han phuh huh hian a tihlum ve thei thin bawk a ni.
  4. Thlai hrisel leh thangduang tak te hian thlai chawrche tak ai chuan rannung bawm leh natna tawrh theihna an nei chak zawk tlangpui thin a, amaherawhchu, leitha te a hun dik lo emaw, a zat bituk bak a kan peh hian thlai kung te tullo ah ti duah vakin rannung (pest) te hi a hip nasa bik thin a ngaih a ni. Kan buh chin te Nitrogen leitha (Urea, DAP, Amonium nitrate etc.) kan pek tam lutuk hian Yellow stem borer, hnahkhawr leh gall midge te a awm tam tir duh bik ni a hriat a ni.
  5. Kan huan te fai takin kan vawng tur a ni a, hnim leh thlai tangkai ve lemlo a lo awm hian rannung thenkhat te tan chaw lo niin kan thlai te rannung in an eichhiat theih hun (vurnerable stage) nghah thlen tir thei tu a lo ni palh thei bawk a ni.
  6. Rannung in a ei vanga thlai thi leh thlai kan suatte kha kan huan leh a chhehvelah kan paih mai mai tur a nilova, kan halral a nih loh pawhin a hla thei ang berah kan paih bo thin tur a ni. Hetiang thlai thi leh a hnah hnuai ah te hian rannung tui leh a note (grubs etc.) te an lo awm thin a, kan huan leh a chhehvela kan paih mai a nih chuan khang rannung te kha an lo keuvin kan thlai te an rawn eichhe leh mai thei dawn a ni.
  7. Thlai phun zin dan (plant density) hian rannung in kan thlai a ei chhiat kawngah nghawng a neive nasa hle mai a, awmze nei a thlai kan phun hian rannung thenkhat tam leh tam loh (population) hi a hril ve thei thin a ni. Buh phun zin a nih hian buh ei chhe tu Brown plant hopper vang a thlai in a chhiat phah nasat laiin, buh phun khat lutuk ah te hian Rice Hispa rannung te hi a tam veleh thung bawk thin a ni. Kan thlai phun/ chin leh a hmun hma a zir in kan thlai phun bit dan te pawh uluk tak a kan duan a pawimawh awm e.
  8. Tlai ngai ngawr ngawr ching lova kan thlai chin te kan thlak kual (crop rotation) hian rannung in thlahchhawng zel tur te tan chaw tur remchang te tikhaihlakin ritlamin an thi ve thei thin a ni. He tiang a thlai chin te kan thlak kual thin hian rannung leh natna mai control lovin lei a leitha awm te pawh kha a inbuktawk (balance) in a awm tir thei thin a ni.
  9. Rannung thenkhat te hi chu thlai lo awm tawhsa atang a thlai thar zawkah te inkaichhawng thin an ni a, hei vang hian thlai zar tangkailo leh rah ngai lemlo te thlak (thinning and pruning) te hian rannung thenkhat te chu a ti rem ve thei thin a ni.
  10. Thlai kan chin hun leh kan phunsaw hun hian rannung in thlai a khawih chhiat ah kawngro a su ve nasa em em a, kan phun hun tih hma emaw tih tlai hret emaw te hian rannung thekhat te chu kan pumpelh ve thei thin a ni. Heihi a chhan pakhat chu rannung te hi dam hun chhung leh puitlin hunchhung ,umal tak nei an ni a, hetia an thlai phun hun kan tih danglam hian an chaw tur te kha a lo awmlo ve thei thin a, chu chuan riltamin a thih tir thei a ni.

A chung a kan han sawi bakah khian tunlai thiamna hmasawn zel vangin kan thlai chin thin thenkhat te chu an mahni a inventheihna (resistance) tih hmasawn sakin an nihphung (genetics) tih danglam sak an ni a, heng thlai te hi “Transgenic plant” tiin an sawi thin a, rannung in heng thlai thenkhat te chu an bawm hian an mahni (thlai) a tangin tur rawn ti chhuak in rannung te khan an thih phah theih thin a ni. Bt Cotton (Bt – Bacillus thuringiensis) chi ang te hi an ni. thlai eichhe thin rannung te hian thlai an ei chhiat mai bakah hian thlai pakhat atang a natna thehdarh tu (vector) pawimawh tak an ni thei bawk a, Thosi in mihring te zing a Malaria a thehdarh ang bawk hian Virus te thehdarh in kan thlai chin tam tak an tichhe thei thin bawk a ni.

Rannung in kan thlai te a chhiatna/ hloh a thlen theih dan hrang hrang chu kan hrechiang thawkhat ta in a rinawm a, amaherawhchu, heti a nih avang a kan huan a rannung awm zawng zawng thah chimih vek tum kher erawh chu tha thlawn senna a nih mai bakah rannung tangkai (beneficial insect) ho te kan tih hlum tel theih avangin kan fimkhur a ngai hle a ni.

  1. POST- HARVEST MANAGEMENT:

Kan thlai chin te a rah kan seng atang â kan ei leh in atan emaw kan hralh thleng a kan sawngbawl dan hrang hrang te hi “Post- harvest management” tiin an sawi thin a, seng khawm te, dah daih (cooling), tih fai (cleaning), thliar hran (sorting) leh bawm a khung/ fûn (packing) te hi a huam a ni. Chhut dan tlangpui ah chuan kan thlai chin atang a 10 – 40 % te hi rannung vang emaw, natna vang emaw, seng lai a fimkhur loh vang emaw thil lei tu (customer) ten thlai rah tha zawk an thlan thin avangin ei leh chhawr tangkai lohvin paih thin a ngaih a ni.

Thlai kan seng dan leh kan seng hnu a kan sawngbawl zui dan hi sum chang thlai (cash crop) bikah phei chuan a pawimawh in kan thlai hralh te hlutna a tizual in a tinep thei hial a ni. Kan thlai te him dam tak a kan seng/ lawh hian chung thlai rah te dahthat theih hun chhung (shelf life) kan tipung thei thin a, thlai rah ah pem emaw pilh emaw a lo awm chuan kha khan a ti tawih awlsamin a rim te a tichhe thei thin a, hralh leh tur a iai awm tak a nih phah thei a ni. Thlai kan seng a kan hriattur pawimawh thenkhat te a hnuai ah hian tarlan a ni:

  1. Kan thlai chin te a rah seng chi a nih chuan a rah lawh hun tur dik takah lawh thin tur a ni. Thlai rah a puitling (mature) a, a hmin lam a pan vel tih a lawh hian a hmin tawh lutuk (over ripe) a lawh ai chuan sawngbawl leh hralh a awlsam zawk tlangpui thin.
  2. Thlai hnah lampang chi a nih pawhin chang lutuk a nih hma lawh/ mal thin hi a tha. Tin, thlai hnah mal/ lawh a nih dawn hian tui pek hma a lak thin tur a ni a, ruahsur zawh chiah a mal/sih te hi tihloh a tan a tha.
  3. Kan thlai rah lawh te vawm khawm satlaih mai mai te hi tih loh atan a tha hle a, uluk lo tak a kan dah khawm hian thlai rah te a ti pem emaw pilh emaw thei thin a, hei hian a ti tawih awlsam thin a ni. Tin, tunlai ah ei leh in tur kan uluk in kan duhtui tawh em em a, thlai rah ah hmelhem a awm hian customer ten an hnawl phah fo thin bawk a ni.
  4. Thlai rah kan seng reng reng hian bawm a khung khawm nghal mai lovin daihlim hnuaiah eng emaw chen kan dah phawt tur a ni a, hei hi “Pre-cooling” tiin an sawi thin a, hei hian thlai rah a lumna awm te kha a ti dai phawt thin a, bawm a khung nghal mai a nih chuan a rah a lumna avang khan a ti hmin zual thei thin a ni.
  5. Bawlhhlawh te fai tak a kan then hian thlai rah te a him mai bakah sawngbawl leh na atan a ti awlsam thin.
  6. Thlai rah te kan phurh sawn dawnin a bawm mumal tak nei a phurh theih tum hram hram hi a tha hle a ni. Thlai phurhna bawm tih hian bawm changkang leh plastic kher nilovin lehkhakhawng bawm te pawh mau a cher khawng a tih chak theih tho a ni. Tin, bawm pakhatah thlai rah tam tak beng khawm hian thlai te kha a in delh chhe ve thei thin a, hah taka kan thawh rah te kha a engmahlovah a kal ral mai thei thin a ni.

Khing kan han sawi bakah pawh khian thlai rah kan thar senghawi chung changah hriattur pawimawh dang tam tak a awm a, sawi lan vek sen a ni rih awm love.

CONCLUSION:

Hmasawnna leh kan khawsak phung danglam chho zel avangin kan nitin eizawn dan a inthlak chho hret hret a, chumi nen a in chawih zel turin kan huan eizawn dan kalphung leh tih thin dan pawh kan her rem ve chho zel a ngai a. Eichawp thar chhuak a lungawi mai thin te khan dia rei leh sum chang thlai lam kan hawi chhoh zel a pawimawh a, hemi hlawhtlinpui tur hi chuan “hman a kan tih dan” ti a kan tihdan hlui kan sahuai thing vawn tlay chuan hma kan sawnlo mai nilovin kan hnung tawlh zawk hial dawn a ni. Chuvang chuan lo neih leh huan siam chunga changah pawh thiamna thar leh tihdan thar tha zawk te kan pawm a kan chin chho ve zel hi kan hlawhtlin theihna tur kawng pawimawh tak pakhat a ni awm e.

 

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