AR VULH DAN HRISEL LEH THA

Dr. Lalhruaitluangi Sailo
Core Faculty (Vety)
SIRD, Mizoram

 

Ar chungchang kan hriat tur pawimawh thenkhatte lo tarlang ila:

1) Ar taksa lum zawng                       :           100 (99.5 – 1.2.2)0 F

2) Minute tina thawk ran zat           :           15 – 30

3) Minute tina mar phu zat              :           120 – 160

4) Artui keu hun chhung                  :           Ni 21

5) Ar nu tui theih hun                       :           Thla 6-8 a upa (Layer tha chu thla 4-ah pawh a tui thei)

6) Arpa chi thlah theih hun             :           Thla 5-6 a upa

7) Artui rih zawng                             :           59g (Average)

8) Ar thang lai lum duh tawk          :           21°C (17-25°C)

 

AR IN HMUN THLAN

  1. Hmun rualrem leh thengthaw thlan thiam a tha.
  2. Khawpui chhung mihring bitna hmunah sak loh tur. Midangte tan a hnawksak thei a, tin, natna laka ar venhim a harsa bik.
  3. Khawpui atangin a hla lutuk tur a ni lo va, tui leh kawlphetha awlsam leh tlawm taka lak theihna hmun a ni tur a ni. Khawpui atanga a hlat lutuk chuan ar chaw leh chakkhai lamna a hautak a, artui leh ar hralh a buaithlakin a hlawk tawk loh phah thin.
  4. Inkal pawhna kawng tha tawk a awm thei tur a ni a, a theih hram chuan Ar farm-ah lirthei a lut thei tur a ni.
  5. Mipui pun khawmna hmun leh riva tamna hmun atangin a hla tawk tur a ni bawk.

 

AR IN SAK CHUNGCHANG A HRIAT TURTE

Ar in sa tur chuan heng a hnuaia mite hi ngaihtuah chunga ruahmanna siam a tha.

  1. Sik leh sa/ khaw awm dan
  2. Ventilation
  3. Boruak hnawn dan (Humidity)
  4. Eng pek chungchang
  5. Ar in chhuat zau zawng
  6. Ar chaw pekna
  7. Tui pekna
  8. Ar vulh dan (System)
  9. Ar in hawi zawng (Orientation)

Temperature/ Khaw lum leh vawt: Ran dang angin ar hian thlan an nei thei lo va. An taksa/ vun aia ar in chhung boruak a lum chuan an taksa lum tidai turin ar-in nasa takin a tuar a, an thih phah thei a ni. Vanneihthlak takin Mizoram hmun tam berah chuan khaw lum lutuk 37°C aia sang kan nei lem lova, thlasikah pawh ar tan a nuam tawk viau. Ar tana chawh rualin 15°C vel hi boruak nuam tawk a ni a, 10-20°C te pawh a nuam tawkah a pawm theih tho a ni. Hemi hre reng hian ar in a tul huna tih lum a tih vawh theih dan ruahman thiam a tha. Ar in chung ah Asbestos hman hi rangva aiin a tha a, rangva kan hmang a nih chuan lum lutuk leh vawt lutuk ven nan ceiling siam a tul a ni.

Ventilation: Ram lumah chuan ar in bang chu hniam te, 2 ft vela hniamin an ping a, a bak chung lam zawng chu wire-net emaw, phelsep/phakrak tahin emaw ventilation an siam mai thin. Chu ventilation ah chuan a tul huna khar theih turin parda an khai mai thin. Ar in chhunga ar ek rimchhia leh an thawk chhuah boruak lum leh pawn lam boruak tha an inthlakthleng reng theih nan ventilation tha tawk siam a pawimawh hle a ni. Ventilation a that loh chuan ar-in natna, respiratory disease chi an vei hma bik thin. Mizoramah chuan ruahsur a awn em avangin ar in Skarting tihsan a tha.

Humidity/ Boruak hnawn lam: Mizoram-ah chuan boruak che vel a thain boruak a zangkhai tlangpui a, hemi chungchangah harsatna hranpa hmuh tur vak a awm lo. Boruak hnawng leh uap churh mai (fur lai) chu ar tan a that loh ang bawkin boruak ro lutuk leh khu rum rumin (thal laiin) ar a ti hrisel lo thei tho va. Ar in chhung hnawn lam chu 40-60% R.H a ni tur a ni.

Ar in eng pek chungchang: Rualkhai taka ar in chhunga eng chhit hian pawimawhna tak a nei a, ar in a eng chu a rualkhai tur a ni a, a thim bik leh eng bik lutuk lai a awm tur a ni lo. Ar in chhuat 5 sq. ft en tawk tur in 1 watt electric bulb a tawk a, hei hi a chhuat atanga 2m vela sanga khai tur a ni.

            Ar note pianghlim chu ni tin darkar 23 eng pek a tha, darkar khat thima dah ve hian zan thim awmzia a hriattir ve a, tin, electricity awm loh thutah an chi-ai lo nge nge a ni. Tichuan, ar te ni hniha upa a nih atangin kar tin darkar khat zela tihniam/ titawi hret hretin kar 20-a upa an nih hnuah chuan ni khatah darkar 12 eng an hmuh hi tawka ngaih tur a ni. Ar tui lai tan ni khatah darkar 16 eng an hmuh a tawk a, ar pa, chi thlahtu chuan ni khatah darkar 10 eng an hmuh hi tha tawka ngaih a ni bawk.

            Electric bulb var hi a larin a tha ber a ngaih a ni a. Tin, 2.1 m a sanga khai hi a tha ber a, bulb inhnaih zawng chu 3.15 m vel a ni bawk tur a ni. Hei hian electric bulb watt khat zelah 0.555 sq.m a zau vel atan a tawka ngaih a ni a (1ft – 0.3 m). Electric bulb te tihfai fo leh a khuhna, reflector tha hman hi thil pawimawh tak a ni.

 

Ar chhuat mamawh dan: Ar upat dan azir leh an len leh tet azirin ar pakhat tana hmun zau zawng a inang lo va, a hnuaia entir ang hi an hmun mamawh dan tlangpui chu a ni.

Ar pakhat zel hmun duh zau zawng

 

Upat lam (Kar) Hmun zau lam (sq.m)
  Ar pum te chi Pumraw lian chi
0 – 8 .7 (aia zim lo) .7 (aia zim lo)
9 – 12 .95 (aia zim lo) .95 (aia zim lo)
13 – 20 1.9 (aia zim lo) 2.35 (aia zim lo)
21 leh a chunglam 2.3 – 2.8

(2.5 sq.ft to 3 sq.ft)

2.8 – 3.7

(3 sq.ft to 4 sq.ft)

 

Ar in hawi zawng: Ar in chu dung leh vang neia sak a ni tlangpui a, ar in vang zau lutuk chu ar in chhung uap leh inup nasat avangin ar tan a tha lo thin. Ar in sak hawi zawng hi ar in chhung boruak lum leh vawt chungchangah leh ar hrisel nen thil pawimawh tak a ni a, a bikin Mizoram sik leh sa (climate) leh thli leh ruahtui tam dan hre renga ar in hawi zawng ruahman a tha. A tlangpui thuin ar in dung lamin chhak leh thlang a hawi hian thlasikah ni zung a dawng thain nipui laiin a dawng tlem deuh a, sak dan tlangpui pawh a ni.

Ar chaw pekna leh tui pekna hmanruate: Ar hi ni khatah tum hnih chaw pek a ni tlangpui a, tui erawh chu an duh tawk in tur chhawp reng mai a ni thin. Ar hi chaw chuk paha thai darh chi leh an chaw thlan paha chuk per chi an ni a, a chaw pekna in a zir loh chuan a baw darh teuh thei a, tul lova nasa taka sum ralna a ni thei a ni. A tlangpui thuin ar chaw pek nan chuan rangva khawr kum sei it et, a hun kanna ke nei, ar lu leng tawk vela thirzai khawnga daidan thliah thliah hi hman a ni ber a. Ar (lu) len dan azirin a len dan inang lo chi thum siam a ni ber.

       Ar tui pekna chi hi chi hrang hrang a awm a. Automatic Drip Waterer (Fountain), Channel Type Waterer leh a chhuata hun chi Waterer- te a ni a. Ar tui pek chungchanga hriat tul tak chu a tharlamin a thianghlim tur a ni a, a put chhuak (leak) theiin, ar tihbuak theih loh a ni tur a ni. Ar in chhung huhin boruak a tihhnawng a, natna hrik a pungin boruak chhia pawh a titam thin.

AR VULH DAN

  1. Cage (Layer) System
  2. Deep Litter System
  3. Traditional System

Cage System-ah hian ar leng tawk te te in wire-mesh a bawm siam a ni a. Chutah chuan chaw leh tui pekna remchang siamsakin ar tui lai tan pawh awmhmuna tui mai theihin an buatsaih a. Hei hi thatna riau leh a vulhtu tana awlsamna tam tak a nei a ni.

 

Deep Litter System-ah chuan chhuat chungah favai, phuai leh thil dang chhah tawka dah a ni a. He chhuat phah hi ‘litter material’ an ti a, ar tan khawsak a tinuamin a ek pawh hnawksak lovin a hip hul zung zung thei a ni. He litter material atan chuan thil huh hip ro chak, a huha bel/hlawm mai lova ro leh mai thei, ar taksa huat loh zawng leh neih awlsam a ni tur a ni.

Tun laiin phelsep (Mau phel)-a tah chhuah hman a ni a, hei pawh hi a tih chi viau. Thir angin a tuiek ve lo va, amaherawhchu, a khat lutuk chuan ar ke a tikhawlo ve thei a ni. Hetiang chi hman a nih chuan sazu vanga harsatna pumpelh a harsa deuh thin a, ar in chhunga sazu lut hian ar chaw an ei hek hlein natna hrik pawh an thehdarh thin tih hriat fo a tha. Tin, sazu rualin arte chak lote an seh hlumin an pu bo fo thin.

Traditional System: Mizo ar vulh pangngaia vulh hi a hnuhma leh kan ar chi azirin a tha viau bawk. Zo ar pangngai kan vulhin chaw leh chenna in kan uluk lo lutuk thin a, a hlawk tur angin a hlawk lo fo a ni. Ar tui bawm/awp bawm siam uluk te, ar awp lai chawm nachang hriat te, arpui no hruai lei leh a note chawm uluk hun hriatte a pawimawh hle a. Ar awp keu artui sawngbawl dan leh thlan uluk deuhte pawh ching ila kan hlawk deuh zawk ngei ang.

A eng dan (system) pawh hmang ila kan hriat fo tur chu kan ar vulhte chu zu-va, rul lak atangte, rukru lak atangte in an him tur a ni a, tin, a theih chen chenah vawn fai awlsam leh natna lakah him damna hmun tur ngaihtuah a tha.

                        

 

AR CHAW LEH A PEK DAN

Broiler leh Layer ar-te tan chaw siam sa Feed Manufacturing Company-ten an siam chhuak a, lei mai turin a awm a,ar tan chi hnihin an siam bera,a den keh nawi,’Mash’ leh hlawm te tak te te,’Pellets’ tein. A khawi pawh a tha ve ve a, ar chaw tha taka chawhpawlh tawh sa ve ve a ni a. pellets a nih chuan thlan tur awm chuang lovin hrual mum kha an chuk maia,’Mash’ a nih erawh chuan an thlang ve leh thei thung. Ar chaw siam tuten thil chi hrang hrang a tawk chauh turin an chawhpawlh thin a, chung ar chaw chawhpawlh, poultry ration-ah chuan heng ahnuaia mite hi an telh ber.

  1. Vaimim den keh
  2. Favai dip (rice polish) / wheat bran
  3. Till oil cake / groundnut cake / mustard oil cake
  4. Sangha dip (fish meat) / meat meal etc
  5. Soyabean meal (bekang)
  6. Mineral and vitamin mixture
  7. Chi (common salt)
  8. Feed activities

Vaimim: Vaimim hi a thahrui chakna, energy petu atan pek ber a nia, Vitamin A a pai hnem a, artui chhungmu tiengtu, Xanthophyll apai tha bawk. Vaimim hi hmawngsawi (Molasses) leh Pangbal dipte pawhin a thlakthleng theih. Ar chaw-ah 50% vel telh a ni tlangpui.

Wheat vai: Vaimim aiin a tlawm tlangpui a, thahrui petu tha tak a ni ve. Vaimim erawh a tluk lo. Crude fibre (tawm) a tam deuh avangin 15% aia tam telh loh tur a ni.

Rice Polish (Favai dip): Hei pawh hi ar chaw zinga chakna, ‘Energy’ petu tha tak a ni a, telh ve ngei a ni zel. A tul leh mamawh dan azirin 50% thleng a pawlh theih a hriak sawr chhuah hnu, De-oiled a nih chuan 30% aia tam pawlh loh tur a ni. Crude fibre (tawm) pawh Wheat vai aiin a pai tlemin chakna pawh a tam zawk a ni.

Till oil cake / Groundnut Cake, etc: Thlai protein pai thahnem a nih avangin protein supplement atan ar chaw-a pawlh a ni. Ar taksa leh artui siamtu ber a niin ar hrisel nan a pawimawh. A chaw-ah 50% aia tam pawlh loh tur.

Fish meal / Meat meal: protein apai tha a, a man a to deuh.  Protein supplement tha tak a ni a, ar chaw ah 15% aia tamlo a pawlh theih. Mineral a pai tha hle bawk.

Molasses: Hmawngsawi hi ar energy petu tha tak a ni bawk a, ar chawah 5% aia tam lovin pawlh theih a ni. Pellets siam nan a tangkai hle.

Soyabean meal : Bekang den keh hi ar chaw-ah a tam berah 30% aia tam lovin an pawlh thin a, thlai lam Protein apai hnem hle a. GNC / TOC te nen a tawk chauhva remsiamin pawlh thin a ni. Pakhat a awm loh chuan eng emaw berin a thlak tawp theih bawk.

          Ar chaw tha chuan energy, protein, vitamin, mineral-te tha tawk leh inbuk tawk (balanced) takin a pai theuh tur a ni. Ar hian ‘Energy’ (thazung) atan chaw a chuk avangin energy hmuhna a chuk tam chuan chaw tha dang tam tawk a ei hmain a tlai tawkah a inngai mai thin tih hriat a tha.

          Ar an len leh tet, upat dan atangin chaw hrang hrang buatsaih a ni a, chungte chuan an mamawh a phuhru tawk thin. 

                 

RAN IN LEH AVEL DISINFECT (TIH THIANGHLIM)

Ar in natna hrik chi hrang hrang laka a him theih nan disinfection a khat tawka tih fo hi a pawimawh hle. Ar in pakhata ar awmho dah ruah veka tih a tha a, ar rual khat hralh mang veleh a rual dang dah luh leh hmain tih thin tur a ni. Chutianga Disinfection kan tih dawn apiangin heng a hnuaia kan sawite hi zawm hram a tha.

  1. Ar in pumpui chu tha taka tihfai tur. A tul chuan chema ziah fai leh tuia silfai a tha a, bal khawn lai a awm miah tur a ni lo.
  2. Ar chaw pekna,tui bawm leh tui pekna lakchhuah hmasa vek tur a ni.
  3. Vaivut nawi leh ar chaw nawi buate hi natna tawm buk a nih avangin, phiah chhuah vek tur a ni.
  4. Tin, Disinfection kan tih hmain ni 3 velah Ar In chhuata phuai leh ar ek khawnte chu paih fai hmasak tur a ni.
  5. Ar In chhung skarting bang chu sahbawn leh tuia silfai phawt tur a ni.
  6. Tin, Ar In chhuat chu Formalin litre chanve leh tui litre 50 (sawmnga) chawhpawlha chiah tur a ni.
  7. Ar in leh a chhunga hman chi bungruate tihfai vek a nih hnuin Formalin hu-a kah leh tur a ni.
  8. Chumi hnuah Formalin hu-a kah leh tur a ni.
  9. A tawp berah chuan Damdawi Aerosol a phuh chi hmanga kah leh tur a ni.
  10. Ar In chhuat phuai (litter) hi kan hmang nawn dawn a nih chuan dawmdawi-hu hmanga ur, (fumigate) vek phawt tur a ni bawk.

DAMDAWI-HU (FUMIGANT) HMAN DAN:

Damdawi hman lar deuhte chu Formaldehyde leh Pottasium Permanganate te, Paraformaldehyde te, Formalin Vapour te, Sulphur Dioxide te anni. Heng zingah hian kan sawi hmasak ber Formal-Dehyde leh Potassium Permanganate chawhpawlh hi a lar ber a, a hnathawh dan pawh a chak tawk hle. Potassium Permanganate leh Formalin inchawhpawlh tawk (ratio) chu 2:3 a ni tur a ni. 80ml Formalin hi Ar In 1000 cubic metre-a zau tan a tawka ngaih a ni. A damdawi hi chawhpawlh lain a phul hluah theih avangin fimkhur a tha.

SANITATION

          Ran hriselna alo that a, a vulhtu tan hlawkna alo that zel thieh nan leh mihring hrisel nan Ar vulhna hnuhma enkawl thianghlim a tul hle.

           Farm thianghlimna kawng (sanitation) chu kawng/hlawm chi hrang hrang a thawh theih a ni a:-

  • Ar chenna hmun tihfai
  • Tui chhia leh ruahtui luan ralna tha siam
  • Disinfection mumal taka tih thin
  • Ar inchhung eng hmuh tam tawk tir
  • Boruak luh leh chhuahna tha tawk siam
  • Ar enkawltu hnathawh dan leh hna awm dan dik en fel a, ruahmanna thasiam

Sanitation tha tak nei thei turin a hnuaia tarlan ang hian hmalak thiam a pawimawh

  • Ar chenna chhuat leh litter material thianghlim hman ngei ni se
  • Ar tui pekna leh chaw peknate chu tihfai nuam leh disinfect awl, kum kar tam lo thei ang ber a siam ni se
  • Ar in chhungah tuidawn felfei taka siam ni se
  • Ar ek, Ar chaw, leh tui chhe hnutchhiah paih fai dan tha siam
  • Ar ek paihna hmun chu tho tawm khawmna leh inthlah punna a nih loh nan chhawla khuh reng tur a ni
  • Ni eng leh electric eng a tul anga dawng thei turin ar in buatsaih tur
  • Ar natna hri a len chuan ar chhhuatphah, litter (phuai)-te paiha tihfai, disinfect zel tur
  • Ar in tihfaina bawlhhlawh reng reng hal ral thin tur
  • Ar chaw pekna leh tui peknate disinfect fo
  • Ar in bang leh pindan bang te leh chhuat phah chinai tuia hnawih var fo a tha. Chinai kg. chanve tui litre 4.5-a pawlh a tawk
  • Ar in leh a vel hulhiapte Disinfectant remchanga kah fo a tha. Ar hrik leh natna hrik laka him fo nan
  • Artui dahkhawmna in leh chhuat te pawh disinfect fo tur a ni
  • Kan tar lan tawh angin disinfect dawn apiangin kan thil disinfect tur kha tihfai that hle phawt tur a ni

 

AR NOTE ENKAWL DAN

Ar note piang hlim atanga kar 4-6 vela upa enkawl dan tlangpui lo tarlang ila. A hmasaa kan hriat tur chu, an tetlai,hetih hun lai vel hi ar tam zawk an thih hun a ni fo thin a. Chuvangin, hrisel tak lo ni tur leh thang duang tak lo ni turin ar note kar 4/6 an nih thlengin uluk takin enkawl tur a ni.

 

AWP LUMNA / BROODER HOUSE

Ar note keu hlimte chu 37-38°C vela luma awp keu an nih hnuin boruak pangngai (vawt)-ah an lo piang chhuak a. Nasa taka lum leh vawt thlakthlengin a tichau thei a ni. Chu lo rengah, ar lian tawhsa natna awlai takin an kai chhawng thei bawk a. hei vang hian ar in dang atanga 100km aia hnai lovah Brooder House, ar te in bik sak a tha. He in chhungah hian brooder-a tih lumna ruahman tur a ni. Kar 1-a upa annih thlengin chu ar note 100 aia tamlo len theihna a chhawnga siam (battery brooder)-ah dah mai theih anni a, hetih lai hian arte chaw her chip deuh bik chu a chhuatah thehdarh mai tur a ni. Ni khat ah vawi hnih arte ek nawi nen phiahfai chhuah zel a tha. Arte tui pekna abika siam, arte tlak hlum lohna ngei tur chiin tui chhawp bawk tur a ni. A lum dan nuam tawkah chuan a hran te te-in an awm far a, a vawh chuan an in ngheng khawmin a lum laiah an indelhkhawm chiam thin.

             Ar note kar khata upa anlo nih veleh Hoover Brooder-ah an dah thei a, hei hi ar in pan ngai atana nun zir tanna a ni. Lehkha khawngin zem an kual (circular) a, he zem bang hi 15cm vela sang a tawka, kil nei miah lovin a inbial pap tur a ni (a kilah an tawm khawmin an indelh hlum thin vangin). He zem bang atanga teha 30-40cm vela hlaah a tilumtu chung khuh nei, a biala sak tho chu hun tur a ni a. He Brooder chhungah hian electric bulb a tul zat arte tawng phak lovah khai kan tur a ni. A lum lutuk ven nan leh ventilation atan, a chhungah hawn a khar leh mai theih hmun thum velah a awm bawk tur a ni. He Brooder bang hi tihzauva tihzim theiha ruahman a tha. Tichuan, arte chaw pekna leh tui peknate chu Brooder, in bial khulh chin zei zeiah a indawta hun thliah thliah tur a ni. A chhuat atan favai emaw, phuai emaw inches 2-4 a chhahin dah tur a ni.

              Ar note hungna bang chu nitin Brooder hualin hun hlat hret hret tur a ni a, kar khat hnuah chaun khawlum leh vawh dan azirin a hungna bang hi a lak sawn theih tawh a ni. Tin dan dangah chuan Battery Brooder hmang lovin kar khat chhung chu favai chungah lehkha phek phahin an chen tan tir thin bawk. Ar note keu hlim awp lumna Brooder hnuai lum zawng hi 35°C vel a ni tur a ni bawk. Ar note kar hnih atanga kar thum annih lai chuan Brooder In pawnah a chaw leh tui pekna rem kual tawh tur a ni. Tin, kar thum atanga kar riat annih hnu chuan a zem hungna awm tawh lovin a In (room) kil li nei dung zuia rem tur a ni a, alai takah chaw pekna pakhat emaw, pahnih emaw hun ve tur a ni. Kar 8-a upa annih atang chuan Brooder angai tawh lo tlangpui a, khaw awm dan sik leh saah heng hi thui tak a innghat a ni.

Source:

                  1)  Farmers training manual in poultry farming, issued by Information Wing, A.H & Vety Department, Mizoram

                    2)   Animal Husbandry, G.C Banerjee, Eight editions.

 

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