LIVELIHOOD UNDER IWMP

Lalthanmawia Ralte
Core Faculty (Eco),
SIRD, Mizoram

 

Livelihood chu miin a nunna atana a mamawh, a tel lova a awm theih loh heng- eitur, tui, chenna leh silh leh fen nei tura hma a lakna, a eizawnna hi a ni. Chutichuan Livelihood chu tui, ei leh bar, ran chaw, damdawi leh silhfen nei tura hmalakna hrang hrang leh mihring tha leh hmanraw dang hmanga a chunga mamawh tarlante nei thei tura mimal emaw pawl kaltlangin emawa a sum lakluh tipung tura hma a lak dan leh chumi hmanga amah leh a chhungkuate zahawm taka an khawsak theih nana an mamawh phuhruk dan hi a ni tiin a hrilhfiah theih.

Livelihoods chu ‘ei leh bar kan zawnna kawng hi a ni’. Dam khawchhuah nana hma kan lakna, hmanrua leh thil kan tih hrang hrangte hi a ni.
  • Livelihood chu a tawi zawngin ‘Eizawnna’ tiin a sawifiah theih awm e.
  • Livelihood hmalaknate hi tum khata tlak mai chi nilovin tih nawn fo ngai chi an ni. Chuvang chuan Livelihood chu a daih rei tur a ni a, a ngialnghet tur a ni. Livelihood chu a tlo emaw a ngialnghet kan tih theih hun chu:-

  1. Hun harsa leh hun khirh (khawkheng, tui lian, indo etc.) pawh dawl zo leh heng hun atang pawha rawn ding chhuak leh thei a nihin.
  2. Leilung hausakna tichhe lova a theihna leh a thil siam chhuah hlutna a ngaia vawn emaw tih hmasawn a nihin.
  • Livelihood hian ze hrang pali pawimawh tak tak a nei:
  1. Income
  2. Expenditure
  3. Employment
  4. Risk

Livelihood ze hrang hrangte hi a tha zawng emaw a chhe zawngin emaw an danglam thin a. A hnuaiah hian danglam tura duhthusam dan entir a ni:

  • LIVELIHOOD GROUP:

Pawl hrang hrang hmalakna inang te tan Livelihood (eizawnna) hi a thuhmun thei. ‘Livelihood Group’ kan tih chu pawl inhlawmkhawm pakhat, a chhunga miten:-

  • Hmalakna thuhmun an nei.
  • Khawtlang leh hnam ziarang inang an nei.
  • Khawsak phung leh sum leh paiah intluk tlanna an nei.

 

  • LIVELIHOOD FRAMEWORK

          Eng nge Livelihood framework chu?

  • Mimal emaw khawtlangin emaw eizawnna atana hma an lakna tur thlan kawnga finchhuahtu leh a kawng kawhhmuhtu a ni.

Livelihood Framework peng hrang hrangte:

Livelihood hi thil chi hrang hrang avangin a awm thei a, chung thil hrechiang tur chuan heng a hnuai a mite hi hriatthiam a tul a ni.

  • Vulnerability context
  • Livelihood resources or assets
  • Policies, institutions and processes
  • Livelihood strategies
  • Livelihood outcomes or goals

Vulnerability context: Mihringte chenna/nunphung pawnlam, a chunga thuneihna neih chin an neih leh an thunun theih miah loh lam a huam. Heng thil te hian an khawsak phung leh an eizawnna ah harsatna a thlen thin a ni. Thil chi thum a awm thei

  1. Long term trend factor:
  • Leilung hausakna hi a kum telin a tlem tawlh tawlh,
  • Mihring pem avangin mipui kan tam lutuk thei,
  • Ramchhung inrelbawlna duhthusam loh deuhin a inthlak thleng thei,
  • Thil siamchhuah leh tharchhuah a chawl thuap thei.
  1. Risk of shocks: Thawk leh khata inthlak phut thei, hriat lawk theih lem loh lam a ni. Entirnan
  • Khawkheng emaw tuilian emaw lirnghing emaw avanga sik leh sa lo inthlak danglam nasa lutukin thing leh ransa a tichimit vek thei.
  • Tualchhung buaina hian khawtlang nunphung a tibuai vek thei.
  • HIV/AIDS leh natna dang hrileng avangin loneih leh a kaihhnawiha hnathawktute an inthlak burh thei.
  1. Seasonal elements: Sik leh sa leh hunbi inthlak hian thlai thar chhuah leh a hralhna kawng leh mihring khawsak phung a tidanglam thei a ni. Entirnan
  • Thil man chungchangah danglamna a thlen thei a. Thil man sang lutuk hian thlai thar chhuahte lei a ti chak awm lova, hei hian tharchhuah lam a thlah thlam tir thin a ni.
  • Inhlawh tur awmdan azirin thlai, loneih leh a kaihhnawih lama tharchhuahte pawh hi a ti hlawk lo thei a ni.

Livelihood resources or assets: Mihringte hian eizawnna tluan tling nei tur chuan assets hrang hrang kan mamawh: Entirnan

  • Human assets
  • Social assets
  • Natural assets
  • Physical assets
  • Financial assets

Heng assets hrang hrangte hi an inkungkaih vek a, an mahni chauh chuan mihring ten eizawnna atanga rahchhuah hmuh an tum tam tak leh chi hrang hrangte hi pe chhuak thei an awm lo a ni.

  • Policies, institutions and processes: Mihring ten keimahni a kan insiamchawp, kan livelihood thiltum kan hmuh theihna tur atana a kawng min kawhhmuh theitu lam hi a ni. Kil tinah hmuh tur a awm, inchhungkhur atanga rampawn thlengin, mimal atanga vantlang thleng pawhin. Eng eizawnna kawng nge kan thlan dawn a, eng ang hlawkna nge kan hmuh ang a, eng ang hmanrua nge kan hman ang a, eng thutlukna nge kan siam ang tih te hi nasa takin an nghawng a ni.
  • Policies (agricultural, land tenure or land use) hi chhiatna lo thleng thei thlen tirtu emaw lo vengtu emaw atan hmanrua a ni thei.
  • Institution (civic, political or economic) rintlak emaw rorelna leh a kalphung tha hian mipuite leh an hamthatna a veng thei.
  • Kan kalphung (Processes) hian a chunga kan sawi tak institutions te leh mipuite an thawh ho a hma an lak dun dan hi a hril a, Heng ei leh bar dinhmun danglam te, inhlawhfak kalphung leh thil hralh lama danglamna lo awm te hi a huam thei.
  • Livelihood Strategies: Khawsak phung pangngaia kan nun ve theih nan eng china zau nge tih leh engah te hian nge hma kan lak ang tih thutlukna siam thiam hi eizawnna tur thlan dawn hian a pawimawhin chumi mila hmalak thiam chu a tha. Eizawnna kawng hi chi hnihin a then theih:
  1. Natural resource-base (thlawhhma lak, ran vulh, puantah etc)
  2. Non-natural resource-base (sumdawn leh a kaihhnawih)
  • Livelihood outcomes or goals: Livelihood atana ruahmanna in a tum ber chu mipuite mamawh a daihzai thei ang ber leh a tha thei ang bera pek hi a ni. Livelihood ruahmanna tha avangin heng a hnuaia rahchhuahte hi beisei theih an ni.
  1. Ei leh bara intodelhna
  2. Nunphung a hmasawnna
  3. Khawsak phung derthawnna a tinep
  4. Sum leh pai dinhmun a hmasawnna
  5. Leilung hausakna hun rei zawk kan hman theihna turin a siam tha

       IWMP-ah Livelihood

IWMP Common Guidelines hian Livelihood hmalakna kalpui turin in leh lo emaw ram leh huan emaw nei ve lo te hi  hmalak hmasakna tur atan a dah pawimawh hle a, hemi a nih avang hian project atâna sum leh pai lut zawng zawng zinga za a pakua (9%) hi Livelihood hmalakna bil atan liau liau a dah hran a ni. Ram buâ chei leh ngaw humhalh lam ngawr ngawr a tha leh tui te hmang zo lova Project huamchhung mi leh sa ten kawng hran hrana hlawk zawk a in lam eizawnna kawnga an thiamna neih te an chhawr tangkai leh zual theih nan kawng kawhmuh hi a tum ber pakhat a ni a. He inkaihhruaina hmanga mi rethei zawkte leh pachhe zawk ten in leh lo emaw huan leh ram nghet emaw te an lo neih ve theih nan sum deh chhuah leh thlai thar te pei punna lama an intahluh ve theihna hun remchang siam sak a tum ni. Hei hian resource hmun khat atanga hlawkna leh hamthatna sum deh chhuahna leh khawsakphung a hmasawnna mitin te tan a siam a ni.

       Livelihood hmasawnna atana inkaihhruaina dan:

Livelihood hmalakna hian kalphung feltak nei a,a hmei a pâ thliar lovin in khuangrual  tak leh langtlang thei ang ber a leilung hausakna hmang tangkai chunga mi harsa te hmasawnna  rahbi thar  a hlan kai hi a ngaih pawimawh ber ni.

  1. Rethei zawk ten in leh lo nghet an lo neih ve theihna tura eizawnna lama tam zawk thar tura hma an lak ve theihna hun remchang siam sak.
  2. Hnam hnuaihnung bik te, veng hnufum bik te, huanlo ram neilo te leh hmeichhe awm nem zawkte abik taka chhawmdawl leh chawikan.
  3. Hamthatna dawng tur thlan chungchangah induhsakna hleihluak awm lova langtlang thei ang bera kalpui.

      Livelihood ruahmanna:

  1. Watershed chungchanga hmalatu tur pâwl thlante mawhphurhna chu project hnuaia Livelihood hamthatna leh hmalakna tihpuitlin hi a ni.
  2. Hmalakna ina hamthatna dawngtu tur dik tak leh a chhawrtu tur dik tak te a hmaih loh nan Livelihood kalphung inhrilh hriatna Vantlang inkhawm emaw a tlukpui intawhkhawmna emaw huaihawt tur a ni.
  3. Livelihood kaihhnawih bika hmalak dan tur chipchiar taka ziahna “Livelihood Action Plan (LAP)” behchhana sum hi pek chhuah tur a ni.
  4. Livelihood Action Plan (LAP) hi IWMP Project hnuaia hmalakdan tur chi hrang hrangte duan rualin Project Implementing Agency (PIA)-te’n WDT leh Watershed Committee-te, SHG members-te, huan lo ram nghet nei lote leh eizawnna ngelnghet neilote rawn chungin a duang tur a ni. LAP hi Detail Project Report (DPR) siamna atan akila lung pawimawh ber te zing ami a ni a, Livelihood Plan a that zawk nan PIA ten he mi chungchang a mi thiam bik team ami emaw agency ami emaw hunchhung nei in a ruai thei ang, heng mithiam te rawih nan hian Administrative Cost atangin sum a pawt peng thei ang. Tin, PIA te hian 2nd Installment pekchhuah hmain an hmalak lehna tur zâu atan LAP hi an siam ngei tur a ni.
  5. MGNREGS, NRLM leh programme dang dang te, eizawnna kawng chi hran hran tana hma la ve tho te nen thuangkhata hmalakna a kal theihna turin PIA ten hma an la tur a ni.
  6. He ruahmanna duan (LAP) hian, hmalakna ina a huam khuate sum leh pai dinhmun uluk taka zir chiangin, an tûn dinhmunte diktakin a pholang tur a ni. Hriattur pawimawh awm ang ang te lak khawm nan PRA hmangin emaw pâwlho te ti ti puiin (focus group discussion) emaw a puipunna huaihawt tur a ni. He ruamhmanna duan (LAP) hian hmachhawp te pho langin, Mahni in tanpuitu pâwl (SHGs) tanpuitur zatte leh a hlawkna rahchhuah tur mitthla theih turin a pholang tur a ni.
  7. Livelihood Action Plan ziahna hi SHGs-te leh Vantlang hruaitute hmuh theih tur a dah ve tur ani.
  8. Mipui leh Project chhawrtu zawng zawngte berawn chungin Livelihood Action Plan hi PIA-ten an mamawh ang zel leh a tul ang zelin an ti danglam thei ang.

 

      Hmalak dan tur:

  1. Livelihood Action Plan-hi Self Help Group leh a thuihhruai pâwl dangte hmanga tih puitlin tur a ni a. Heti anih lai hian mimal tana hman tangkai ve theih tur Livelihood sum dawn za a sawm (10%) hi dah hran a ni ve tho a ni.
  2. SHGs lo hmingtha tawhsa te emaw SHGs mihring 5 – 20 ina andin thar ten emaw Livelihood hnuaia hmachhawp hrang hrangte hi an kal pui thei ang.
  3. Livelihood hnuaia SHG a tel tur thlan dawnin khawsak phung intluk tlang deuh, tuina thuhmun, mamawh inangkhat tlang te awm khawmna bik pâwl then hrang hrang siam tur a ni .
  4. SHG hian hmalakna hi SHG huâng chhungah a huhova hmasawn nan emaw, mimal bil (a inchawk) a hmasawn nan emaw thuang hnihin an kalpui thei ve ve a. Mimal hamthat nana sum leh pai te hman a nih reng rengin SHG in a sum leh pai chelek chungchangah leh a hnathawh dan chungchangah thu a nei ang.
  5. Mimal thahnemngaihna avanga Livelihood chungchangah rawtna; amah emaw midang emaw tana sum leh pai pûk theihna tur ruamhmanna thlen a nih reng rengin Watershed Committee te sawipuina behchhanin Watershed Cell cum Data Centre (WCDC) in uluk takin a ngaihtuah ang a, sum leh pai tanpuina a sem chhuah hma in thutlukna a siam tur a ni. Nimahsela, mimal tana sum puk theih hi Livelihood sum za a sawm (10%) aia tam a ni tur a ni lo.

     Livelihood component hnuaia sum leh pai tanpuina dawn theih dan:

  1. Livelihood component zârzotû turte zingah vantlang rualpâwl phak lote, hnam hnuaihnung zawkte, in leh lo huan hmun nghet nei zo lote leh hmeichhiate thlan tel tur an ni, PRA hmanga zirchianna behchhanin dinhmun hnuaihnunga ding rau rau hmeichhiate zingah pawh chhungkhat pa neilote leh hnam hnuaihnung bik (ST/SC)-te leh sum leh pai dinhmuna pachhe zawkte duhsak tur an ni.
  2. SHG pakhat chhungah chhûngtin atangin mi pakhat aia tam a tel theih loh ang.
  3. SHG hmeichhe pâwl te ngaih pawimawh bik tur an ni.

 

  • Budget: Project sum zawng zawng atanga zâ-apakua (9%) hi Livelihood atana dah a ni. 

      Sum pekchhuah dan kalphung leh enkawl dan:

  1. Livelihood sum tur hi Project sum dawn zawng zawng atanga la chhuakin Watershed Committee-te account ah dah luh tur a ni.
  2. Anni hian sum leh pai a chhawmdawl ngaite puih nan (SHGs te sumlû lûmlet tur atante, SHGs-te inrelbawlna tih paukhauh nan te/ SHG peng tenau zawk ten Livelihood hnuaia hma lian zawka an lak theih nan te) an hmang ang.
  3. Livelihood tana sum dawn zawng zawng atangin a lo berah zâ-a sawmsarih (70%) hi SHGs chhunga sum lûmlet(revolving fund) tur atan bik hman tur a ni a, hengte hian mimal intunnun-na tur pawh a keng tel ang. Tin, sum za a sawmthum (30%) hi SHGs leh a peng hnuaihnung zawkte inrêlbawlna tih phuisui nan hman theih a ni.

 

      Revolving Fund atana seed money:

          SHG tan:

  • SHG reng rengin sum an mamawh in Watershed Committee (WC) ah dîlna an thlen tur a ni ; heng dilnate hi ngunthlûk taka WC rorelnaah te sawi ho a nih hnuah rem an tih tlan chuan SHG-te sum mamawh dan anga zirin sum an pe thei
  • Sum lumlet tur atan sum lû Rs. 25,000 hi SHG ten hmalakna tur ruangâm WC-a an theh luh hnuah, Livelihood hmalakna huang chhung ami a nih chuan WC te pawmpuina in sum hi pek an ni ang.
  • SHG ten sumlu atan a an lak chu a thla bi in emaw an rûl (repay) leh tur a ni a, heng sum tlingkhawm leh te hi anmahni ah vêk emaw pâwl dangah emaw WC-te thutlukna mila sem leh a ni ang. Tin, sumlû rulh chungchangah pawl chak dan leh hmalakna a zir in emaw an sum dinhmuna zirin emaw pawisa rulhna sum tam lam tur hi WC-in an bitukang. Tin, heng sumte hi thla sawmpariat (18) chhungin rulh zawh ngei tur a ni.
  • Sum fai a mimal kuta sum sem hi tih loh tur a ni a, Cheque a pek tur a ni. Tin, Pawisa pek chhuah hma in SHG in an pawl chhunga mi pahnih (2) hmingin Bank ah account intawm an hawng tur a ni.

      Enterprising Individuals tan:

  • Sum leh pai mimal tana hman anih dawn reng rengin Livelihood nen inkaihhnawiha hmalakna tur ruahmante tarlangin Watershed Committee (WC)-ah a thlen tur a ni. Tin, dilna te chu ngunthlûk taka WC rorelnaah sawiho anih hnuin rem an tih tlan chuan PIA ten WCDC-ah an dilsak anga, sumlû inhmanchhawk tur chu pek chhuah an ni ang.
  • Heng rorelna ah te hian sum leh pai chhawmdawlna dîltu te chu an telve ngei tur a ni a, tin, sum leh paia tanpui tur an thlanchhuah takte chu an dinhmun inthlauhna leh ngaih pawimawh dan tur indawt a zirin huang hran hranah thliar hran tur a ni a, chhawmdâwlna in a huap kim zawk theih nan tanpuina an pek leh turte ngaih pawimawh dan pawh hemi behchhan a thlan tur hi a ni ang.
  • WCDC in rem a tih hnuah Wateshed Committeeten sum an pe chhuak ang. Mimal tinte sum lu lak chu a thla bi in emaw rulh leh tur a ni a, heng sum tlingkhawm leh te hi an mahni ah vêk emaw pâwl dangah emaw WC-te thutlukna anga sem leh a ni ang. Sumlu rulh chungchangah mimal theihna leh hmalakna a zirin emaw an sum dinhmun a zirin emaw pawisa rulhna sum tam lam tur hi WC-in an bituk ang. Tin, heng sum te hi thla sawmpariat (18) chhungin pek kir leh ngei tur a ni.
  • Mimal chungchang bikah chuan anmahni remchan anga an lakchhuah mai theih turin an Account-ah Cheque hmangin sum dah luh sak tur a ni.

     Major Livelihood activities atana sum awm theih dan:

  • Project hnuai a SHG emaw a kaihhnawih pâwl tenau zawk ten (a lo berah pâwl panga tal inzawmkhawm in) hmachhawp lian tham Livelihood hmalakna huang zauh thei tur emaw chak zawka kal theihna tur emaw ruahmanna an neihin Loan an dîl thei ang. Hemi dîl tur hian WC ten WCDC-ah an thlen pui anga, anni hi project enkawltu Department leh Bank-te nen inrawnkhawm in, tul an tih chuan sum an hman tir thei ang.
  • Hmalakna tur hmachhawp a len a zir zelin Loan (tanpuina sum fai emaw) an dawng thei ang. Tin, he tanpuina tur sum hi hmalakna tur senso zawng zawng zâ-a 50 (50 % of the cost of activity) emaw cheng nuaih hnih (2 Lakhs) emaw, hemi pahniha a tlem zawk zawk hi a ni tur a. Chubakah, tanpuina sum an dawn hian Livelihood tana sum dah zâ-a sawmthum (30%) a pel tur a nilo, chu chu Project tana sum dawn zawng zawng zâ-a pakua (9%) tihna a ni.

 

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