NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (NRM)

 R. Thafala
 Core Faculty (Agri),
SIRD, Mizoram.

 

Introduction:

            Khawvel a mihring pung zel leh Economic a hmasawnna avang a kan mamawh (Needs) leh khawsaknawmna tur atan a kan duh (Wants) pung zel hian kan chenna khawvela hausakna (resource) awm te hi chin lem neilo a hman duhna min siam nasa em em a. Chu hausakna thenkhat te chu hman zawh theihloh leh rawn insiam thar leh thei te an nih laiin thenkhat erawh chu siamthar leh theih a nilo thung. Hei vang hian kan khawvel hausakna awm ang ang te hi renchem leh zai zawk a hman kan in zirtir uar zel hi a pawimawh awm e.

 

“Natural Resource” chu eng nge ni?

          Natural resource” kan han tih hian kan khawvel pianken, lei lung leh a chhehvel in hausakna a kentel te hi a kawk ber awm e. Mihring ten kan siam chawp nilo leh kan duan chawp nilo, heng; tui, thli, lei lung, ram (land), tuialhthei, ni eng, ramngaw awmsa, ramsate leh thil dang tam tak a huamthei awm e.
Natural resource tam zawk hi kan dam khaw chhuahna atan a kan mamawh a nih laiin a then te erawh hi chu kan khawsak tinuam tu atan a kan mamawh te chau a ni kan ti thei ang.

Natural resource kan han tih hian then hrang hrang ah a then theih awm e, chung te chu;

  1. A to bul a zir a thenna:
    1. Biotic – Heng hian kan chheh vel a thil nung (organic) leh a kaihhnawih atang a resource kan neih te hi a huam a. Ramngaw, ramsa, thlai leh a dang te hi a ni. Natural fuel kan han tih petrol leh a dangte hi thlai tawih atang a rawn insiam tho an nih avang hian he then hnuai ah ian dah ve bawk an ni.
    2. Abiotic – He mi then hnuaiah ve thung hi chuan thil nung lo (non-living & inorganic matter) atang a resource kan neih te hi a huam ve thung a. Ram (Land), tui, thli, thir, rangkachak leh adt hi a huam a ni.

 

 

 

 

  1. Siam thar theih leh theihloh a zirin:

Renewable resource: Hei hian resource kan neih thenkhat, mihringte leh thil nung ten kan hman avang a langthei a kiamlo leh rawn in siamthar leh thei te hi a huam a. Ni eng, boruak, thli leh adt. te hi an ni. Amaherawhchu, mihring in chinlêm neilo a hmasawnna hmingpu a kan nawm kan mâk a khuarel thil dimdawi hauh lo a kan hman thin avang hian heng kan resource siamthar leh theih zing a thenkhat te hi chu a dinhmun a chianglo chho zel mai a. Entirna a tan, boruak te hi mihring leh rannung te hian kan hip zawh leh hman ral theih mai angin langlo mahse tunlai thiamna hmasawn zelin a ken tel bawlhhlawh chi hrang hrang avangin boruak thianghlim hip tur  kan tlachham telh telh mai zawng anih hi.

  1. Non-renewable resource: Resource thenkhat, a insiamthar leh hun chhung rei tak emaw, insiamthar leh thei tawhlo ang chi te hi Non-renewable resource kan han tih hi chuan a huam a. Resource zing a tam tak, a insiamthar leh hun chhung mihringin in kan hmuh phakloh te pawh hi he then hnuaiah hian telh a ni. Petroleum, Radioactive elements, minerals thenkhat leh adt. te hi an ni.

Natural Resource Management (NRM) chu enge ni?

            Sap tawng diksawnari chuan “Management” tih chû; uluk tak a enkawl, uluk tak a vil a kawng kawhhmuh… ti te in a hrilhfiah a. “Natural Resource Management” kan tih chuan “Khuarel leilung hausakna hrang hrangte uluk tak a enkawl leh vil zui” hi a ni kan ti thei awm e.

Thil zir mi lartak pakhat chuan, “khawvel leilung hausakna te hi mihring te hian ransate ang hian an mamawh (needs) phuhru tu atan chauh hian hmang ta theuh sela, kan khawvel luahkhat khawp mihring mamawh hi kum rei tak chhung chu a daih thei a ni” tiin a ziak a ni. NRM hian leilung hausakna te hman tlem ngawr ngawr ringawt hi a tum bulpui ber a nilova, a tum ber zawk chu leilung hausakna kan neih te hi tun a tan a daihzai zawk leh renchem zawk a hman a, chhuan lo la awmtur ten an la chhawr tangkai ve theih dan tur ngaihtuah chung a siamthar leh zel pah bawk hi a ni.

Eng vangin nge NRM chu kan ngaihpawimawh ang?

            Nitin kan khawsak na a kan mamawh tam zawk hi natural resource kan han tih te atang siam emaw lakchhuah emaw a ni deuh vek mai a. Mihring in thil (Assets/ Goods) kan siamchawp tam zawk ah hian khawvel a thil awmsa hrang hrangte nihphung leh pianhmang ti danglam a kan siam chhuah a ni tlangpui a ni. He ti anih a vang hian, mihring te’n hmasawnna kan han tih reng reng hi chu  khawvel leilung hausakna hrang hrang te tello chuan a thleng thei tak tak lo a ni. Amaherawhchu, khawvel a mihring kan pun chak dan leh natural resource te rawn insiam thar chak leh dan hi a inthlau em em a. Chumaibakah, mihring te duham em avang leh nawmsak thlakhlelhna avang hian kan natural resource neih te hi dimdawina leh renchemna tel hauh lovin kan suasam mawlh mawlh mai bawk si a.  “Khawvel hausakna hi mihringte mamawh phuhru thei khawp chu a awm na meuh mai a, an duhamna (greed) phuhru thei tur khawp chuan a tam tawk silo a ni”  tiin mi challang tak pakhat chuan a lo sawi daih tawh a ni. Global warming, acid rain, khawkheng, tui lian, lei min leh chhiatna nasa tak tunlai khawvel a kan tawh leh kan hmachhawn chhoh mek te hi natural resource uchuak tak a kan suasam na leh inchuhna rahchhuah langsar  tak zing a mi a ni awm e.

            Kan thlah te leh chhuan lo la awm zel tur te hmakhua (future) hi “tun” a mi te kutah hian nasa takin a innghat a, chu mawhphurhna pawimawh leh sang tak chu kan hrethiamlo in a pawimawhna hi kan koah kan la nghat thiamlo hle a. Nakin a mi te mai nilovin tuna awm mekte tan pawh hian kan resource tam tak te chu a limit tawh em em mai a, natural resource kiam zelin kan nitin khawsak ah harsatna tam tak a thlen dawn a ni tih entirna tha tak mai pakhat chu, Gas harsatna kan tawh thin hi a ni thei awm e. Eirawngbawl na atan LPG-ah chhungkua zawng zawng deuhthaw kan in nghat a, eng emaw harsatna awm avangin LPG kan hmutha thei talo a, chu chuan kan nitin khawsakah leh khawtlang nun thlengin harsatna tenau a thlen a. Hei hi Natural resource kiam zel (depletion) in kan chung a harsatna ala thlen theih dan tur entirna tha tak a ni thei awm e. Tun chhuan (generation) te hian he harsatna thleng hi kan hmachhawn lo a ni maithei a, amaherawhchu, chu harsatna thlen tu erawh chu kan ni thei a ni tih hria a NRM hi kan ngaihpawimawh a vei tak te a kan vei hi a pawimawh hle a ni. Tui thianghlim, boruakthianghlim, ram tha te inchuh hian kan tu chhuan te hi an la intibuai fo lovang tih pawh hi a sawi theih loh a ni.

 

NRM atan chuan engtin nge hma kan lak tak ang?

            NRM pawimawhna leh kan mawhphurhna a nih thu kan hrechiang thawkhat tawhin a rinawm a, tunah chuan NRM chu engtin nge ka kalpui ang tih kan zirho leh thung dan a ni.

            Mithiam te chuan NRM atan a thilpawimawh tak tak pathum sawi dan an nei a, chu chu “3R’s” an tih te hi a ni a. 3R’s awmzia chu “Reduce (Ti tlem)”, “Reuse (hmang nawn)” leh “Recycle (siam thar leh)”

  1. Reduce: Reduce tih chu “ti tlem” tihna mai a ni a, hei hian a kawh tum chu kan nitin khawsakna atan a kan thil hman reng reng renchem tak a hman leh kan hman zah (quantity) tih tlem hi a kawk a ni. Entirna atan chuan rawngbawlna leh intihfaina atan a kan tui hman thin tih tlem te, eng kan chhit thin tih tlem te leh tuialhthei kan hman tih tlem te hi a kawk thei ang. Ram changkang thenkhatah chuan hnathawk tur â an kal te hian petrol hman tlem na atan leh boruak chhia tih chhuah (emission) tlemna atan cycle a kal thin te hi an in tih hmuh nasa em em a ni. Renchem hi siam chhuah/ siam thar tluk a pawimawh a ni tih hin pawm tlat a pawimawh em em a ni.
  2. Reuse: Reuse tih awmzia chu “Hmang nawn” tihna mai a ni a. Hei hian a sawi tum leh a ngaihpawimawh em em chu thil (material) kan hman reng reng hman nawn theih chi chu dah that a hman nawn leh hram hram thin hi a ni. Kan sawilan tawh angin kan nitin khawsakna atan a kan thil hman reng reng te hi natural resource atang a siam emaw tihdanglam emaw a ni deuh vek mai a, chuvang chuan thil (material) kan hman nawn theih reng kan paih â a thar kan siam emaw hman emaw hian kan resource chu indirect takin kan ti hek zel thin a ni.
  3. Recycle: Recycle kan tih chuan “siam thar leh emaw siam danglam leh a hmang nawn leh” hi a ni ber awm e. Tunlai khawvel changkang chho mek ah hian resource kan neih te renchem na atan recycling hi ram changkang deuh te chuan an uar chho zel a, thil (material) hman nawn theih tawhlo te hi thil dang tangkai zawk leh nihphung danglamah siamin hmannawn leh thin a ni. Entirna kan hmuh theih hnaivai ber chu kan chhehvela thirchhe zawng (scrap collector) te hnathawh hi a ni awm e. Kan bungraw duh tawh loh leh thir them te khawn khawmin a siamtharna hmunah hralh lehin chumi atang chuan hmanrua emaw bungbel emaw thar te an rawn siam chhuak thar leh thin a ni.

A chung a kan han sawi tak point 3 te khi nitin kan nunphung a hman mai theih te a ni a, heng kan han sawi bakah hian tui, lei lung, ramngaw leh ramsa humhalh tur a kawng hrang hrang a hma kan lak bawk hi NRM ti hlawhtling tur a thil pawimawh tak a ni. Heng leilung leh tui te hman zai leh renchem ngaihpawimawh loh chuan NRM hi a khingbai mai a ni dawn a ni.

Tui luang ral mai mai thin khawl khawm leh nakina la hman tangkai theih tur a dah khawl te, lei chhungril â a put luh (percolate) a tuihna te a siamthar leh theihna tur atan a heng percolation tank, contour trench/pit/bund leh adt siam te, tui luan ral rual a lei chunglang luangral mai mai tur terrace hmangte, vegetataive cover (lei lawng ruah in a nan vak tur dal tur a thlai/ hnim to tir etc) tih hmasawn te, changkham siam te leh thlai or thing phun uar te leh adt hi NRM atan a hmalakna tha tak zing a mi a ni bawk a ni. Ramngaw te kan humhalh thatloh avang hian kan chhehvel boruak kan ti chhe mai nilovin, ransa te tan a chenna kan tihchhiat sak nasa em em mai bawk a, chumai bakah a chung a kan han sawilan tak tui leh leilung luang ral tam tak te pawh hi thing leh mau kan humhal tawk loh vang in a nasat phah hle bawk a ni.

Ram hmasawn tawh tam takah te chuan lei a thlai chaw tha (nutrients) te a insiam thar leh zung zung theihna turin thlai chin tur leh thlai chin hun tur (crop sequencing/ crop rotation) te uluk tak a duangin, thlai tui pek (irrigation) thleng inn hunbi fel fai tak a tih thlap thin a ni a. Hei hian daihrei zawk a thlai chin na atan a lei (soil) hman a nih theihna tur leh tui renchem na kawngah nasa takina pui a ni.

Conclusion:

      Natural resource management hi thil (activity) chikhat tha tak a tih â zawh mai theih chi nilovin hmalakna zau tak a ni a. Tin, thil awmsa (natural resource) renchem leh hman tlem ngawr ngawr ringawt nilovin, tun (present time) a hmang mek tu ten hnianghnar tak leh daihzai tak a hman a, an khawsakphung leh dinhmun ti hmasawn tu ni chung reng a nakin (future) thlir thiam chung leh ngaihtuah chunga ruahman tel bawk hi a kawk a ni.

      Kan chhehvel (environment & ecosystem) enkawl leh humhalh hi sawrkar leh pawl ho tihtur ah dah mai lovin, mitin in kan mawhphurhna leh kan tihtur theuh a ni tih kan hriat a, kan hnathawh rah tel thei tu leh kan inthlahdah vang a tuar thei tu kan ni tih hi kan inzirtir uar leh zual a pawimawh hle awm e.

 

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