WATERSHED TREATMENT WORKS

SOIL & MOISTURE, WATER CONSERVATION TECHNIQUES:

Khawlsiamthanga Khawlhring
Deputy Director
SIRD, Mizoram.

 

Tuk loh ramngaw hnuaiah hian leilung leh tui luang ral hi a tlem ber a; chutihrualin, kan ei tur thlai chinna tur ram kan mamawh si. Leilung leh tui humhalh dan kawng dik tak nena hma lak a nih chuan pawi nasa tak thlen lovin hei hi a tih theih a ni. Chutiang tih dan phungah chuan lei chhunga tui put lut ti pungin, ruah tui / tui hawk luang chak lutuk leh luang ral mai tur ven dan kawng a tel a ni. Kan chenna leilung leh tui humhalh that hi kan dam khawchhuahna atana thil tul leh kan tih makmawh a ni a. Tuna kan leilung enkawl dan hian kan hma lam hun leh kan tu leh fate dinhmun a hril dawn a ni. Leilung leh a hnawnna vawn him leh tui humhalh dan kawng hrang hrang a awm a; chung zinga pawimawh zual leh kan hman mai theih turte kan thlir ho dawn a ni.

  • Terracing: Terrace chu mual tan zawnga ram laihzawl hi a ni mai a. Terrace chuan leilung leh ruahtui luangral tur te a vengin, lei chhungril hnawnna a ti pung bawk a. Terrace laih danah hian kan fimkhur a ngai a. Contour line mila kan laih loh chuan tui a luang thei thin a; chu chuan lei tha a len bo theiin, terrace tlang te pawh a hawrh thei thin. Tin, Terrace kan laih hmain lei chung hang tha chu chung lamah theh chhoh hmasak vek ni se, laih zawhah lei chung lang hang tha chu terrace zawlah dah leh thin tur a ni. Tin, terrace chu huan lu lam atanga laih tan thin tur a ni. Hmun awih lutukah chuan terrace laih kher tum loh pawh a tha zawk thei. Hmun awihah chuan terrace ko a sang hma em em a, chu chuan lei min a siam duh a; tin, tha sen pawh a tam bik thin a, terrace pakhat atanga a dang kal pawh a harsa thin. Leilung pian hmang khawih danglam nasat a ngai thin a; hei hian leilung dinhmun a ti derthawng thin a ni. Terrrace kan lai duh talh a nih pawhin zim te tein kan lai tur a ni.

 

Half Moon Terrace: Mual awihtlana kan thlai phun bulah tui leh leitha khawlna tur atan bial chanve (semi-circle) anga laih zawl hi a ni a, a bial thlang lam chu lung te, emaw, thing hmang pawhin a dawl zawl theih a ni. Kan hmanraw neih rem chan apiang hman mai tur a ni.

Tin, hmun awih lutukah chuan zau takin a siam theih loh a; thlai kung chhak lam zawk lai zawl pawhin a siam theih. Amaherawh chu a hmun hma a awih poh leh kan terrace siam chu a zim a ni mai. Hmun awih takah chuan zau taka laih kher tum loh a tha.

Full Moon Terrace: Hei hi thlai kung hual papa laih zawl kual vek hi a ni a. Hei hian thlaiin tui leh leitha a hmuh ang zawng zawng te tangkai taka a chhawr theihna’n a pui thin a ni.

  • Vegetative Bunding: Hei hi mual tan zawnga thlai kung zing/bit taka thlai phun a ni a. ‘contour line’ mila phun a ni thin. Leilung leh tui luangral tur venna atana hmanraw tangkai tak a ni a. Tui hawk luang a ti muang a, leilung luang ral tur a veng a, lei hnawnna a ti pung bawk. Heng thlai te hian lei nawi leh hnawl te lo khuapin zawi zawiin zawl a lo siam ve thin a ni. Thlai thar a ti hlawk thei thin a ni.

Vegetative bunding / contour hedgerow atan hian ranchaw chi hman hi a remchang hle a; a kung leh a hnah chu a lo len deuhin ran chaw atan an la thin a; a kung bul lam leh a zung te chu leilung vengtu atan an tangkai hle a ni. Kum rei vak lovah heng thlai bulah hian lei nawileh hnawl chhek khawm hmangin  zawl terrace a lo insiam ve mai thin a ni.

  • Check Dam: Check dam hi hmanraw hrang hrang hmangin a siam theih a; cement concrete te, boulder hmang te leh thing leh hmanraw dang phuar khawm hmang pawhin a siam theih. Hei hi Gully Plug an ti bawk. Lui kawr tui hrut na lutuk tur venna tha tak a ni.

Lung tla hlang vawm khawma siam chu ‘loose boulder check dam’ an ti a. Thing leh thlai kung lam chi phuar/kilh khawm hmanga siam chu brushwood check dam an ti bawk.

Check dam chu lui kawrteah emaw, mual ruam laiah emaw an siam thin a. Tui luang chak lutuk tur venna hmanrua pawimawh tak a nih rualin, tui khawlna leh lei lung luang ral tur venna’n a hman theih bawk. Lei min tur leh kawr thuk zel tur pawh a veng thei.

 

 

  • Contour Trench : Mual tan zawnga lei laih khuar hi contour trench chu a ni a; contour trench chu mual vang lam zawngin a zawl phei dap ‘contour’ zela laih khuar hi a ni a. Tui pawh tling se a chim san zawng inang deuh pat tura ngaih a ni.

Hetianga lei laih khuar hi inzawm lo leh inkar thelh deuha laih a nih chuan ‘staggered trench’ tih a ni. Hei hian mual chuanhnuai lama tui leh lei luang thla tur te chu a lo dang thin a, lei tha luang ral tur a ven bakah lei chhung ril lama tui put lut a ti tamin, lei hnawnna a belhchhah thin a; thlai tan a tangkai em em a ni. Hun engemawti hnuah a khura lei tling khawmte hi leitha a nih avangin lak chhuah a, thlai/thei kung bulah dah leh thin tur a ni.

Contour Bund: Hei hi mual tan zawnga lei chhun pawn a ni a; contour mila line siama,  chumi anga lei chhun pawn tur chu a ni. Kan lei chhun pawn chu feet 1 vela sang leh a chhip zawl pawh feet 1vela zau ni thei se; hei hian tui leh leilung luang ral tur nasa

takin a veng thei a ni. Hmun awih lutuk lovah siam chi a ni a; hmun awih deuhah chuan siam zin deuh tur a ni. Contour bund hrul velah hian Thlai kung nitrogen siam thei chi phun a tha a, ranchaw lam chi te pawh chin a tha. Hei hian ran chaw leh kan thing tuah tur mamawhte a phuhru thei a, a hnah leh zar nawi tla te chu lei ti thatu tangkai tak a ni bawk. Contour bund inkar ram te chu thlai hmun atan hman tur a ni a. Contour bund chuan lei luangral tur leh ruahtui luang ral mai turte a veng a; ruahtui tling khawmte chu zawi zawiin lei chhungah put lutin tui hna siamtu tangkai tak a ni bawk.

 

  • Seasonal Pond: Seasonal pond te hi tui hna kumhlun nei an ni lem lova. Seasonal pond tam tak chu lei chhunga thil awmte tuiin a lo chiah zawp ral tak avanga a chung lam lei lo tla muk lehin khuar a lo siamna hmuna fur ruahtui lo tling thin hi a ni a. Heng hmunah te hian hnim leh nungcha chi hrang hrang te pawh an cheng ve thin a ni. Hei hian a chheh vel lei te tihnawngin, a thlang lamah tuihna te pawh a siam ve thei a. Heng tui te pawh hi thlai chawmna leh ran chawmna atante pawh a hman tangkai theih bawk thin.

Seasonal Pond kan tih ang deuh bawk hian ‘percolation tank’ kan tih te pawh hi an tangkai ve bawk a. Kan huanah lei laikhuarin, ruahtui leh tuitai te pawh a lak khawl theih a; heng tui te hi zawi zawiin leichhungah an put lut thin a, chu chuan a chhehvel lei te chu tihnawngin, thlai tan a tangkai em em thin a ni. Ram chuan hnuai lama tui hna pawh a ti pung thin.

 

  • Gabion Structure: Gabion structure chu thir hrui phiar hmanga lung phuar khawm a tih theih mai awm e. Hetiang hi lui kam vela leilung humhalhna atan a tangkai hle. Tui a put tlang zung zung theih avangin khaw fur lai pawhin a rih belhna a nasa lutuk lova, tin thirlen hmanga phuar khawm a nih avangin tlema a lo chet deuh hret pawhin concrete anga khi leh rinawm loh phahna a awm ve lem lo bawk a. Chuvang chuan thil dang tam tak- Kawng siamna te, dil kam hungna atan te, insakna atan thlengin an hmang tangkai hle a. A hmanna a zirin, a inang lo nual a ni. Kawrtea leimin leh tui hawk na lutuk tur venna atan pawh a hman tangkai theih bawk.

 

  • Mulching: Mulching chu huana lei chunglang venna atana a khuhna, Chhawlchhin ti mai ila a hriat thiam theih awm e. Chhawlchhin-na atan hian hmanraw hrang hrang- organic– thil nung atanga kan hmuh, tawih thei (hnim hnah, buhpawl, thing tang nawi, thingzaina phuai, etc.) leh inorganic– thil nung lo atanga kan hmuh leh siam chawp thil, tawih thei lo (lung, lei rawhchan nawi, plastic, etc.) a hman theih.

 

 

 

 

Mulching tangkaina te:

  • Leilung luangral tur a veng
  • Ruah tuiin lei a ti bel tur a veng
  • Thlai tui pek zin a ngai lo
  • Lei lum leh vawhna a vawng him
  • Hnim to tur a veng
  • Thlai hnah leh rah a vawng fai
  • Khaw hnawngah pawh ke bal tur a veng
  • Huan a ti mawi.
  • Strip Cropping: Huana thlai chi hrang thlur hrang fel tak leh, thlur zau zawng leh inkar inang thlap leh awmze nei taka chin hi strip cropping an tih chu a ni. Hei hian thlai enkawl a ti awlsam a, khawl hmanga thlai chin leh a thar chhuah sengkhawm a ti remchang bawk. Thli leh tuiin leilung a lenbo tur a veng.
  1. Crop Rotation: Thlai chi hrang hrang chin chhawk thin tur a ni a, hei hian leilunga thlai mamawh chaw tha te hip kang a nih mai lohna’n a veng a, chaw tha dang siam chhuah lehna kawngah pawh a pui bawk a ni. Ei chhetu rannung a ti tlem a; lei lung nihphung chhe tur a veng thei bawk. Thlai chi hrang hrang – be lam chite, bul bawk nei chi te, a hnah ei chi te leh a rah ei chite hi a inkar thlaka chin thin a tha.

 

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